Hierarchical Classification System of the Knowledge Base

Land Reclamation

4. Land reclamation

4.1. General land reclamation problems

4.2. Irrigation and drainage of lands

4.2.1. Irrigation reclamation Irrigation Irrigation development in the Aral Sea basin Irrigation regime and irrigation dynamics Water consumption Hydromodule and hydromodule zoning (duty of water) Methods to estimate water consumption Irrigation and water application rates and their estimation Accounting of groundwater and precipitation when setting irrigation rates Water application (watering) Water rotation Soil water regime and water balance Irrigation system and its components Irrigation source Headworks Main irrigation canal Water conveyance and distribution canals: Inter-farm canals On-farm canals Temporary irrigation network Water diversion network Tailwater network Lock-weir and drainage network (see also Man-made structures Structure, calculation and designing of irrigation system components Irrigation methods Surface irrigation Border ditch irrigation Basin flooding Furrow irrigation

Ways to organize irrigation: Gradient plane irrigation:

• by lengthwise circuit

• by crosscut circuit Low-gradient or horizontal plane irrigation:

• dead furrow irrigation by crosscut circuit

• counter irrigation

• check irrigation by furrows

• permanent irrigation site irrigation

Irrigation technique: Continuous stream irrigation Variable stream irrigation Discrete irrigation Micro-irrigation

• drip irrigation

• subsurface irrigation

• local impulse irrigation

• mist irrigation Sprinkling irrigation Stationary sprinkling Semi-mobile sprinkling irrigation Sprinkling irrigation by mobile machines Sprinkling irrigation network Lift irrigation Pumps and pumping stations Water-pumping devices using the power of water flow Subirrigation Closed irrigation systems Combined irrigation systems Appurtenances in the irrigation network Technique, organizational management and mechanical means for construction of the irrigation system and its components Measures aimed at preventing and reduction water losses in irrigation network Seepage-control measures Canal lining works, types of lining (concrete. reinforced concrete, synthetic films and materials, etc.) Compaction and stabilization of canal bottom and sides Operation of the irrigation system Maintenance and repair of the irrigation system and its components Automation and water accounting in irrigation systems Automation of water distribution in canals Water accounting in irrigation systems Water accounting in surface irrigation network Water accounting in subsurface irrigation network Water accounting in collector & drainage network Water accounting on rivers Water meters Drainage in reclaimed lands Development of drainage system in the Aral Sea basin Drainage types Vertical drainage Structural components of vertical drainage system: calculation and designing Well tubing Filters Pumping power equipment Mechanical equipment for construction of vertical drainage Operation of vertical drainage system; evaluation of performance and efficiency Horizontal drainage Arrangement in the plan Surface horizontal drainage Subsurface horizontal drainage Structural components of horizontal drainage system: calculation and designing Drain wells Drainage filters:

• made from natural materials - gravel and sand mixture

• made from artificial materials Drainage pipes:

• ceramic

• plastic

• from other materials Drainage excavation procedure Mechanical equipment for drainage excavation Operation of horizontal drainage system; evaluation of performance and efficiency Combined drainage Structural components of combined drainage system: calculation and designing Combined drainage excavation procedure Mechanical equipment for combined drainage excavation Operation of combined drainage system; evaluation of performance and efficiency Biodrainage Drainage flow and drainage module Drainage flow determination methods Drainage flow utilization Use of drainage water for various purposes Leaching of saline soils Water and salt regime of soils Leaching rate Saline soil leaching types General (construction, development) leaching Current (operational) leaching Mechanical equipment for leaching saline soils

4.2.2. Watering of the area

4.3. Land clearing and reclamation works

4.3.1. Irrigation land levelling Types of irrigation land levelling General (construction) land levelling Operational (smoothing/floating) land levelling Pre-season land levelling Mechanical equipment for levelling of irrigation lands

4.3.2. Recultivation of lands

4.4. Silvicultural reclamation of lands

4.5. Chemical reclamation of lands

Selected bibliography