Types (forms) of governance

In terms of composition of actors of the process, one may determine the following forms of governance:

  • State,
  • Joint,
  • Community-based.

Joint governance ensures maximal cooperation and minimizes direct (based on orders) governance.

Governing in cooperation with people is an ideal form in the democratic society with high level of knowledge and education. Here, cooperation, first of all, refers to negotiation of goals and decision making.

Cooperation-based governance is limited when:

  • There is not time for negotiation of goals and participatory decision making.
  • The group does not have appropriate knowledge and capacities for negotiation of goals or joint decision making and time is not enough to reach the desired level.
  • Freedom of actions in negotiation of goals and decision making is limited due to a specific task.

Author: Mirzaev N.N., SIC ICWC