Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Green Growth and Environmental Governance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia

The report takes stock of the latest developments in the overall economic and social conditions in EECCA countries, market signals and environmental governance arrangements that may facilitate the shift towards green growth, and discusses possible barriers and measures to overcome them. At the same time, the report delineates the possible elements of a more coherent and effective reform agenda. In such a way the report aims to serve as background and a starting point for follow up development of green growth policies in EECCA.


Towards Green Growth: Monitoring Progress. OECD Indicators

This strategy provides a practical framework for governments in developed and developing countries to seize opportunities that arise when the economy and the environment work together.


Towards green growth. A summary for policy makers

In June 2009, Ministers from 34 countries signed a Green Growth Declaration, declaring that they will: “Strengthen their efforts to pursue green growth strategies as part of their responses to the crisis and beyond, acknowledging that green and growth can go hand-in-hand.” They endorsed a mandate for the OECD to develop a Green Growth Strategy, bringing together economic, environmental, social, technological, and development aspects into a comprehensive framework.

The Strategy responds to that mandate. It forms part of the OECD contributions to the Rio+20 Conference in June 2012.


Towards Green Growth

Green growth means fostering economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies. To do this it must catalyse investment and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities.

A return to “business as usual” would be unwise and ultimately unsustainable, involving risks that could impose human costs and constraints on economic growth and development. It could result in increased water scarcity, resource bottlenecks, air and water pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss which would be irreversible; thus the need for strategies to achieve greener growth.


Tools for Delivering on Green Growth

A range of policy options are available for driving green growth. This document outlines these options and summarises many of the issues that need to be taken into account when embarking on a green growth strategy.


Pilot Testing of the OECD Set of Green Growth. Indicators in the Kyrgyz Republic

Within its programme of cooperation with countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, OECD supports the Kyrgyz Government to prepare the ground for a regular application of green growth indicators


Greening Public Budgets in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

Public expenditure remain crucial for addressing environmental problems and, more broadly, promoting a greener model of development in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). Traditionally, however, the environmental sector in the EECCA countries has not been very effective in attracting domestic public financing. As the global economic and financial crisis imposes ever-tighter constraints on public budgets in the region, and as donors shift to new approaches of delivering aid via country systems, this sector becomes increasingly vulnerable to underfunding.

This report aims to help EECCA environmental administrations to harness the potential benefits of on-going public finance reforms (PFM) in the region. More specifically, it analyses the opportunities for and obstacles to integrating multi-year public environmental programmes into the medium-term expenditure frameworks (MTEFs) that a number of EECCA countries are introducing. The results from this analysis are based on a regional survey, involving ten EECCA countries, namely: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. This survey was conducted within the framework of the Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme (EAP) for EECCA.


Meeting the Water Reform Challenge

The need to reform water policies is as urgent as ever. Water is essential for economic growth, human health, and the environment. Yet governments around the world face significant challenges in managing their water resources effectively. The problems are multiple and complex: billions of people are still without access to safe water and adequate sanitation; competition for water is increasing among the different uses and users; and major investment is required to maintain and improve water infrastructure in OECD and non-OECD countries. Despite progress on many fronts, governments around the world are still confronted with the need to reform their existing water policies in order to meet current objectives and future challenges. Building on the water challenges identified by the OECD Environment Outlook to 2050, this report examines three fundamental areas that need to be addressed whatever reform agendas are pursued by governments: financing of the water sector; the governance and institutional arrangements that are in place; and coherence between water policies and policies in place in other sectors of the economy. The report provides governments with practical advice and policy tools to pursue urgent reform in their water sectors.


Global Green Growth Institute

Green Growth in Motion. Sharing Korea's Experience

The book includes details on implementing a policy to tackle challenges brought about by climate change, the importance of increasing energy efficiency and promoting environmental and economic benefits. Commercialization of green technologies is also seen as a key platform for economic growth and job creation. It also provides information on Korea’s green growth strategy, legislation and plans.


United Nations Environment Programme

Green Economy. A Brief For Policymakers on the Green Economy and Millennium Development Goals

This UNEP report examines how new investments in clean energy, sustainable transport and environmentally friendly agriculture can help countries achieve international goals to alleviate poverty. The report gives policymakers numerous examples of "green" strategies that are paying multiple dividends and generating new opportunities to ensure environmental sustainability.


Green Economy. Developing Countries Success Stories

The economic analysis in the Green Economy Report builds in part on the encouraging signs and results of many initiatives around the world. A number of these come from developing countries, including emerging economies, and illustrate the positive benefits from specific green investments and policies. This, if scaled up and integrated into a comprehensive strategy, could offer an alternative development path, one that is pro-growth and pro-jobs. A limited selection from a growing range of experiences in different sectors, are summarized below, highlighting their economic, social and environmental benefits.


Towards a Green Economy. Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. A Synthesis for Policy Makers

UNEP's Green Economy Report, entitled Towards a Green Economy, aims to debunk several myths and misconceptions about the economics of "greening" the global economy, and provides timely and practical guidance to policy makers on what reforms they need to unlock the productive and employment potential of a green economy.


Working towards sustainable development. Opportunities for decent work and social inclusion in a green economy

This joint ILO/UNEP study shows that, if accompanied by the right policy mix, a green economy can also create more and better jobs, lift people out of poverty and promote social inclusion. It also demonstrates that employment and social inclusion must be an integral part of any sustainable development strategy.


Smallholders, food security, and the environment

Backing and enabling smallholders can unleash a new and sustainable agricultural revolution. The report aims to improve understanding among policymakers and practitioners of the relationships between smallholders, food security and the environment, and makes a series of recommendations.


Moving towards a Common Approach on Green Growth Indicators

This work is the result of coordinated efforts by the Global Green Growth Institute, OECD, UNEP, and the World Bank as part of the GGKP’s program on green growth measurement and indicators. In offering a conceptual framework for green growth indicators, this preliminary report marks the first time that the participating international organisations have shared a joint vision for a set of indicators that can help communicate the central elements of green growth and green economy. The indicators alert governments and citizens to pressing issues where policy action and societal responses are needed to address the environmental challenges.


Water Chapter from Green Economy Report

This chapter identifies the contributions that water can play in assisting a transition to a green economy. It makes the case for early investment in water management and infrastructure to make greater use of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It also provides guidance on the government arrangements and policy reforms that can sustain and increase the benefits associated with such a transition.


World Water Council

Water and Green Growth

This report is the first major output of a project on Water and Green Growth, led by the Government of the Republic of Korea and the World Water Council. It is the result of over 12 months of research and analysis by an international group of experts. The purpose of the report is to examine the relationship between water and an emerging economic paradigm called “green growth”. It provides an analysis of 26 case studies that illustrate various aspects of water and green growth, and then uses the analysis to recommend a draft framework for policymakers.


United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific

The Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific explores the opportunities that a low carbon green growth path offers to the region. It articulates five tracks on which to drive the economic system change necessary to pursue low carbon green growth as a new economic development path. In particular, the “visible structure” of the economy, comprising such physical infrastructure as transport, buildings and energy systems, together with the “invisible structure”, which encompasses market prices, governance, regulations and lifestyles, have to be re-oriented towards resource efficiency. The Roadmap provides policymakers in the region with a comprehensive list of policy options and practical implementing strategies as well as examples of successful practices, woven through more than 100 fact sheets and case studies.


Global Water Partnership

Water in the Green Economy

Water security and green growth are inextricably linked. Water, unlike any other natural resource, touches every aspect of society and the environment and is essential for our well-being. Water is embedded in all aspects of natural resources management for inclusive and sustainable growth, in energy and other productive activities, and in sustaining ecosystems on which everything depends.


The Green Economy Coalition

The Green Economy Pocketbook. The case for action

This publication describes a vision for change. It provides a snapshot of the opportunities, as well as the questions, presented by a shift to a green economy for communities, for governments and for businesses. It describes glimpses and gives examples of a transition that is already underway but has yet to be taken to scale. It connects some of the dots between the many different actions going on at all levels – civil society, government, finance, business – to show how we can evolve our economies to work for people and planet.


United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Sustainable management of water and water-related ecosystems

The present document was prepared in accordance with the “Environment for Europe” (EfE) Reform Plan to support the discussions of the Seventh EfE Ministerial Conference under one of the Conference’s two main themes: sustainable management of water and water-related ecosystems. The document follows the agreed questions for discussion in the multi-stakeholder round tables, describing recent trends, challenges and achievements as well as recommendations for the way forward. The different aspects are illustrated by good practices submitted by Governments and other stakeholders.


A green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication

The present document was prepared jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe secretariat and the United Nations Environment Programme to support meeting discussions related to green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.


Transitioning to a green economy: the role of education for sustainable development

Education for sustainable development is embedded in the main principles that inform the concept of sustainable development: it engages with the three interlinked pillars as defined in the Johannesburg Declaration of economic development, social development and environmental protection, and moreover with the relation between the local and the global. It ultimately aims to foster sustainable development. The concepts of green economy and ESD are therefore rooted in the same school of thought and serve the same goal; however, while they are conceptualized as different approaches for achieving sustainability, they are inherently interlinked.