Irrigation reclamation

Irrigation reclamation implies water supply to fields that experience want of water and increase of its reserves in the soil root layer in order to raise the soil fertility. Irrigation allows improving supply of moisture and nutrients to plant roots, reducing surface air temperature and increasing its humidity.

Irrigation reclamation is divided into the following types:

  • Irrigation regularly performed is water supply to irrigated area as many times as it is enough for water saturation of soil. It can be gravity and with mechanical water rise (from rivers, reservoirs, etc.).
  • One-time irrigation consists in retention of local runoff over a certain area. It can be of flood (use of flood water) and estuary (use of captured spring runoff of melt water) type.
  • Water supply to an area consists in construction of reservoirs, canals, and artesian wells from which water is used mainly for economic needs, agricultural water supply and partially for irrigation of small land plots.
  • Additional irrigation (periodical, during dramatic water deficit) is typical of insufficiently watered lands.

Depending on the purpose and effect on soil and plants, irrigation can be of moistening (major type of irrigation reclamation) and special purposes. Among the latter are sowing, fertilizing, frost-protecting (temperature control), charging, leaching, and other types of irrigation.

Irrigation is carried out selectively under shortage of water resources (most often, local runoff water is used) and when irrigation only of a part of rotating crops is required. In zones of large irrigation systems with secured water sources available it is possible to carry out irrigation on large areas and for all crops.

Selected bibliography