Automation of water distribution in canals

Automation of canal water distribution is the set of methods and means allowing controlling the water distribution process with no direct human input or facilitating the labor of the operating personnel to distribute water among consumers.

Automation of water accounting and water distribution

Implementation of water accounting and water distribution automation will change the structure of the operating service in irrigation and drainage systems: needs arise for communication and automation departments, positions of engineers and technicians.

To automate water accounting, primary measuring devices are used, which serve for estimating water discharge through one or two variables. Primary devices have transducers to which connecting telemechanics and automatic control devices can be connected. At the implementation of water distribution automation along the canal, they install regulator gates and devices of remote control and communication with the dispatching station on hydraulic structures. Water discharge is regulated from upstream and downstream and by combined approach according to which canals, structures, storage capacities and waste ditches are built taking into consideration discharge fluctuation during water use.

Under operating conditions, the majority of water outlets work for the purpose of keeping discharges at downstream steady, at which irrigation equipment can be used efficiently and rated irrigation regimes can be maintained. In case of excessive flow quantity, water is sent to storage capacities. Small flow quantity is uniformly distributed between reaches. With this flow control method, they arrange automatic control structures (checks) are installed along the length of canals, which redistribute water flow to one or two side branches and provide rated water supply to lower sections.

Large hydraulic facilities have electric hoists, on which instrumentation systems are mounted on for centralized control of flow quantity by remote control means.

Hydraulic computations allow finding out the flow quantity versus variables on each structure: upstream and downstream water depth; height of sluice gate rise; and way of water outflow through holes.

Centralized remote control and remote supervision are carried out from the dispatching station.

Automated control systems at operation of irrigation and drainage systems

Under intensification of agricultural production and development of agricultural sector, the number of factors that have an effect upon all production spheres, including water industry, increases.

At present, the mathematical simulation approaches and algorithms allowing solving system analysis problems, forecasting, optimal scheduling, and efficiently controlling based on automated control system with a breakdown by sections are essential for handling of growing quantity of information.

Automated control system and its functional sub-systems are introduced step by step.

Selected bibliography