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Technique, organizational management and mechanical means for construction of the irrigation system and its components

Technique implies, to wide extent, a set of the methods, processes and materials used in a particular kind of business as well as scientific description of engineering production methods; in the restricted sense, it means a complex of the organizational measures, operations and methods aimed at manufacturing, maintenance, repair and/or operation of an item with designed quality and economic costs and associated with the current level of development of science, technology and society in whole.

Construction of the irrigation system and its components is carried out by breaking down into certain stages. The terms of reference for installation (construction) of every object characterizing the scope, volume and period of the construction works are determined in the result of analysis of needs of the national economy. To implement these terms of reference, relevant organizations conduct surveys and dork out designs and construction estimates. Approved design and estimate documents are handed over to construction and erection organizations that organize and execute the construction works. Such organizational management is based on the system of the uniform design rules and regulations, organization, planning and management of construction works.

The design of organization of construction works includes:

  • construction time schedule that determines the time and priority of construction of the irrigation system and its components with distribution of capital investments and scope of construction and erection works over facilities and periods of construction. The time schedule for the preparatory period is drawn up separately (with distribution of scopes by months);
  • general construction layouts of the project or a complex of projects for the preparatory and basic period of construction;
  • organizational and technological schemes that determine the optimum priority of the irrigation system construction works with indication of technological order of the works;
  • bill of the quantities of basic construction, assembly and special construction works specified in the design and estimate documents;
  • bill of the quantities of building structures, products, materials and equipment with distribution by periods of construction time schedules which is drawn up for the project proceeding from the scope of works and effective rates of construction material consumption;
  • bill of the quantities of basic construction machines and vehicles for construction works in whole, which is drawn based on the overall quantity of the works, volumes of cargo transportation and performance rate of construction machines and vehicles;
  • demand for builders personnel in main categories.

Source: Hidrotechnik.ru

Mechanical means for construction of the irrigation system and its components are the machines and gears used for construction and erection works in irrigation systems. All the production and transportation processes in the course of construction of the irrigation system are implemented by a complex of machines and gears interlinked in terms of performance and principal parameters.

To select optimum means and rational methods of execution of the works, it is necessary to take into account the sizes and shapes of the structure. Laying of canal beds is carried out by using construction-related machines and gears, i.e. by single-bucket excavators, scrapers, bulldozers, and soil-compacting machines. To concrete canals, they use a complex of machinery consisting of an excavator-leveller, concrete-paving distributor, and floor saw.

Overall levelling of irrigated lands is carried out mainly by means of scrapers and bulldozers. For installation of closed horizontal drainage, the following drainage machines are used: D-301, ED-3.0, D-659 (in Russian: -301, -3,0, -659), etc. Current levelling is done generally by longspan blade levellers PT-4A and PT-2.8.

Sources: Cotton Growing Encyclopaedia (in two volumes). Volume 1. Tashkent, Office of Editor-in-Chief of Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia, 1985. 544 p.

Selected bibliography