About project

The project objective and tasks

The project objective is to put into practice the computer-aided system of regulating and operational monitoring of the water distribution process at the BWO’s structures and on pilot canals to ensure supplying of irrigation water to farmers in due amounts and proper time and to establish the system of monitoring of channel inflow, flow rates and water levels at the water-balance gauging stations and water intakes.

A key task of automation and monitoring is to establish the system of management and control of canal operation, which allows:

  • to improve implementing the plan of water use;
  • to create conditions for sustainable, uniform and equitable water distribution excluding unproductive water losses.

Achieving this objective will be provided based on the introduction of the SCADA system on the water intake and check structures, water-balance gauging stations, as well as at the expense of dispatching of all hydraulic structures under management, establishing telecommunications and computerization of transferring, processing and storing information. In addition, special observers who will be provided with communication means and vehicles will monitor the water-balance sites.

The existing situation

Pilot canals to be subjected to automation have different sources of water supply:

  • the South Fergana Canal is fed from the Andijan Reservoir of over-year regulation;
  • the Akbura River, flow of which is regulated by the Papan Seasonal-Storage Reservoir is the water source for the Aravan-Akbura Canal;
  • the Khoja-Bakirgan Canal diverts water from the river of the same name with unregulated flow.

The existing situation in water distribution through irrigation canals and the stochastic nature of flow rates in streams impede uniform water delivery to consumers and meeting the established water use limits. Unproductive organizational water releases result from the inopportuneness and unreliability of information gathered at the gauging stations due to the lack or insufficient accuracy of measuring devices that are used for monitoring flow rates and water levels.

Automation of the main waterworks and the system of gathering information on the water-balance gauging stations and monitoring at the water-balance sites conducted by observers who will be provided with communication means and vehicles are envisaged for ensuring sustainable water distribution providing stable and uniform satisfaction of farmers’ requirements.

The system of managing the water distribution process

The system of managing the water distribution process: there are not differences of principle in the system of managing water resources on pilot canals; each republican system is represented by three levels:

  • basin level where the BWO “Syrdarya” and republican ministries of water resources carry out management functions. At this level, the ICWC establishes limits of water resources use for the irrigation systems and controls their realization;
  • level of the Basin Irrigation Systems Administration, Fergana Valley Main Canals Management Organization (Uzbekistan) and Provincial Water Management Organizations (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan). At this level, the plans of water use with allocating water resources per specific irrigation canals are approved taking into consideration the water use limits established and applications of farmers; and
  • level of the Main Canal Management Organization, at this level, irrigation water distribution over ten-year periods in accordance with the approved plan is being implemented, as well as the monitoring and adjusting of water delivery every ten days, if necessary.

The main dispatching point (MDP) and water-balance sites with local dispatching points were established on each irrigation canal in the frame of operational water distribution system. The Central Dispatching Point (CDP) that is the central element of water distribution management along the canal was established at the Main Canal Management Organization.

The principle of water distribution through irrigation canals

A key principle of water distribution through irrigation canals is planned water use that bases on stable and equitable meeting of consumers’ demands over the entire length of irrigation canals. Plans are drawn up by water resources management organizations based on applications submitted by water users and water use limits established by the Ministries. Water use plans are approved after joint reviewing by the Irrigation System Management Organizations (or Provincial Water Management Organizations), Canal Management Organizations, Canal Water Committees and representatives of water users. Water use plans are the basis for plans of water diversion and delivery to consumers that are being drawn up every ten days and adjusted during the irrigation season depending on weather conditions, general water management situation in the river basin and applications of consumers.

An extent of automation and dispatching of main hydraulic structures and the monitoring system

Headworks of the pilot irrigation canals are equipped with measuring devices of the SCADA system; sensors of water level at upstream and downstream of the structure and position of gates (an extent of their lifting) are installed at all check structures. Dispatching points at headworks are equipped with computers and the system of telecommunication that provides trouble-free communication with the central and local dispatching points and automatic transferring of information according to the established mode. The following components are automatically operating:

  • gates of headworks that maintain designated flow rates under fluctuating of water levels in the headrace channel;
  • gates of spillways that are operated in accordance with water levels in the headrace channel;

All information registered by sensors is illustrated at the symbolic circuits; and the protection from emergencies (self-locking of gates, exceeding a maximum level, power cutoff, opening a power switchboard by unauthorized persons etc.) is envisaged.

The SCADA system at the main structures includes the following equipment:

  • computers (hardware and software);
  • programmable controllers;
  • input and output modules;
  • sensors of water level and position of gates; and
  • radio stations with antennas.

Secondary canal head gates are equipped and operate similar to pilot main canals’ headworks.

Automation will be introduced on:

  • the South Fergana Canal – 10 main structures and Kirkidon Reservoir’s structures (72 gates and 17 dispatching points in total);
  • the Aravan-Akbura Canal – 3 main structures (17 gates and 7 dispatching points ); and
  • the Khoji-Bakirgan Canal – 7 main structures (43 gates and 7 dispatching points).

Four BWO “Syr Darya” structures are also equipped with the SCADA system (46 gates and 5 dispatching points). Water-balance gauging stations are equipped with the SCADA system (sensors of water level). The SCADA system at water-balance gauging stations includes the following equipment:

  • programmable controllers; and
  • input and output modules, sensors of water level and radio stations with antennas.

Information on water levels and flow rates is transmitted through radio communication to a local dispatching point (LDP) of a hydro-operational site (a hydro-unit) that operates this water-balance gauging station. The following gauging stations will be subjected to automation:

  • South Fergana Canal – 10 gauging stations (one at the headworks, 9 at water-balance sites);
  • Aravan-Akbura Canal – 4 gauging stations (one at the headworks, 3 at water-balance sites);
  • Khoji-Bakirgan Canal – 3 gauging stations (one at the headworks, 2 at water-balance sites); and 7 dispatching points.

Monitoring at water-balance sites

Objects of automation and computer-aided monitoring on the pilot irrigation canals do not exceed 10% of water distribution infrastructure; therefore, a key role in achieving sustainable and uniform water distribution along the entire length of irrigation canals to meet users’ water demands belongs to observers at water-balance sites who monitor off-takes operation.

For the purpose of efficient water resources management, the irrigation canals are subdivided into water-balance (hydro-operational) sites that are the primary level of management hierarchy. A local dispatching point that will be equipped with computer and telecommunication means was established at each water-balance site. A LDP receives information from main structures and water-balance gauging stations and has the staff of observers who monitors water distribution at all off-takes and water diversion by pumping units. Monitoring at water-balance sites is conducted based on visual read-out of information and its transferring to the LDP by observers via their individual radiophones, and data input into the computers by hand. Off-takes at water-balance sites are divided into two groups: “controllable off-takes” and “accountable off-takes.” Off-takes (pumping units), unplanned opening or closing of which can considerably affect canal operation, refer to “controllable off-takes” and are characterized by the following parameters:

  • within the SFC system, off-takes with a discharge capacity more than 100 l/sec;
  • within the AAC and KBC systems, off-takes with a discharge capacity more than 10 l/sec;

Flow rates for such off-takes can be regulated during a ten-day period; and at the same time, flow rates of off-takes with a lesser carrying capacity are not being adjusted. All off-takes are “accountable ones.” Water withdrawal is accounted using water-measuring devices; however, water diversion through small off-takes with a discharge capacity less than 5 l/sec is accounted according to their rated discharge capacity.

Water withdrawal by pumping units is calculated taking into account the number of pumping units (PU) under operation and their nameplate capacity and audited according to registrations of an energy meter.

The number of daily observations is established depending on the duration of daylight hours: during the growing season – four times a day, and during the off-vegetation period – three times a day. Time spent by an observer at one structure was estimated based on virtual evaluating duration of each elementary procedure:

  • at off-takes: i) readout of an indication of a water-level staff installed in the headrace channel; ii) readout an indication of a water meter’ staff and determination of a flow rate using the design chart; iii) transmitting data to a dispatcher; and iv) data recording into the field book;
  • at the pumping units: i) visual definition of the number of pumps under operation; ii) reading indication of an energy meter; iii) transmitting data to a dispatcher; and iv) data recording into the field book.

Observers are provided with radio-telephones and vehicles (by mopeds, as expected). The number of observers was specified on the basis of a length of water-balance sites, number of off-takes, and normative working hours.

Functional tasks of monitoring; reliability and exchange of information

Efficient water distribution based on the proposed system of automation and monitoring should be grounded on reliable accounting of water resources. With that end in view, the IWRM-Fergana Project envisages calibration and metrological assurance of all main structures, water-balance gauging stations and re-attestation and issuing passports of water-measuring devices. The second condition is the efficient interaction of all levels of water management hierarchy. The IWRM-Fergana Project clearly specified functional tasks of participants of management and monitoring activity.

A dispatcher of the LDP is a primary level of gathering, processing and analyzing the incoming information. Data transmitted by observers allow evaluating the uniformity of water delivery to users at the water-balance site, adequacy of water supply against the plan and an amount of unproductive water losses. Key functional tasks of participants of the monitoring process are the following:

Observers at water-balance sites:

  • strict implementing the dispatcher’s instructions relative to flow rates of irrigation water delivery to users;
  • monitoring and accounting flow rates of irrigation water delivery through all relevant off-takes and pumping units;
  • monitoring and accounting side inflows and water releases through spillways;
  • transmission of data on water levels and flow rates through off-takes, pumping units, water escapes and side inflows to a dispatcher of the LDP by a radiophone;
  • implementing measurements in compliance with due time and sequence of observations;
  • regular data recording into the field book;
  • preventing intervention in gates’ operation of off-takes by non-authorized persons; and
  • safeguarding and maintenance of the flowing-through section of hydraulic structures, mechanical and water-measuring equipment.

Dispatchers of the Local Dispatching Points (LDP):

  • adjusting flow rates established by the CDP for a ten-day period for all off-takes and pumping stations within the water-balance sites;
  • gathering and checking information on actual flow rates at non-automated off-takes transmitted by observers via radiophones four times a day in the interactive mode;
  • analyzing a daily balance of water resources at water-balance sites, evaluating the efficiency factor of a water-balance site and unproductive water losses;
  • regular entering of monitoring data into the database; and
  • calculating an average daily flow rate and discharge for each off-take at the hydro-operational site and water-balance gauging station and submitting this information in the form of reports to the CDP.

Dispatchers of the Central Dispatching Points (CDP):

  • setting assignments for LDPs’ dispatchers regarding flow rates at water-balance gauging stations and all off-takes;
  • implementing the planned water delivery by means of instructions to the LDPs and recurrent control of flow rates and discharges over the past periods;
  • an everyday reconciliation of reported and actual data on volumes of water delivery to water users with the DP of Basin Irrigation System Management Organization;
  • a reconciliation of data between water-balance sites;
  • analyzing the daily balance of water resources at water-balance sites and along the irrigation canal as a whole; and
  • analyzing water losses and indicators of the water balance at water-balance sites and along the irrigation canal as a whole.

The telecommunication system of the CDP and LDPs

Irrigation canals are equipped with the telecommunication system with state-of-the-art facilities for data transmitting and voice-message reports that solves the following tasks:

  • reception and transmitting telemetric information, which is formed by the automation system established in the radio-communication units of the CDP, waterworks and water-balance gauging stations;
  • voice radio-communication between the LDPs and observers of hydro-operational sites; and
  • provision of the united information system of an irrigation canal based on the computerized network of transmitting, reception, processing and exchanging of information between the CDP and LDPs.

Under the project: “Canal Automation in the Fergana Valley”, specifications are set for the following components:

  • technological regime;
  • analyzing and archiving of information;
  • technical means;
  • software;
  • a telecommunication system; and
  • mechanical equipment and power supply.