Knowledge Base on International and National Water Laws
International Water Law
National Water Law of Central Asian Countries
Documents of National and International Water Law
ICWC’s Activities in the Field of Water Law


Section 1: International Water Law

  General questions of Water Law

Allan A., Wouters P. What role for water law in the emerging “Good Governance” debate? (2004)

Bernauer T., Kalbhenn A. The Politics of International Freshwater Resources (2010)

Bogdanovic S. International Law of Water Resources: Contribution of the International Law Association (1954-2000) (2001)

Burchi S., Spreij M. Institutions for international freshwater management (2003)

Burchi S. Domestic water laws for effective governance and for compliance with international commitments (2016)

Burchi S. International and domestic water law in Central Asia - implementing international law obligations regarding transboundary waters: the role of domestic water legislation (2018)

Decker K., Sage C., Stefanova M. Law or Justice: Building Equitable Legal Institutions (2005)

Dellapenna J.W. The customary international law of transboundary fresh waters (2001)

Environmental Rule of Law. First Global Report (2019)

Hodgson S. Modern water rights: Theory and practice (FAO, 2006)

Hodgson S. Creating legal space for water user organizations: transparency, governance and the law (FAO, 2009)

Kolliopoulos A. Balancing different water uses in a transboundary basin (2011)

Paisley R. Adversaries into partners: international water law and the equitable sharing of downstream benefits (2002)

Paisley R. International watercourses, international water law and Central Asia (2018)

Pohl B. et al The Rise of Hydro-Diplomacy. Strengthening foreign policy for transboundary waters (2014)

Rieu-Clarke A., Spray C . Ecosystem services and international water law: towards a more effective determination and implementation of equity? (2013)

Salman M.A.S. The Future of International Water Law: Regional Approaches to Shared Watercourses? (2010)

Stephan R.M. International water law for transboundary aquifers – a global perspective (2019)

Sindico F. Transboundary Water Cooperation and the Sustainable Development Goals (2016)

Subramanian A., Brown B., Wolf A. Reaching across the Waters. Facing the Risks of Cooperation in International Waters (2012)

Teclaff L.A. Evolution of the River Basin Concept in National and International Water Law (1996)

Tignino M. Joint ownership of water infrastructure in international law (2016)

Transboundary Waters: Sharing Benefits, Sharing Responsibilities / UN-Water Thematic Paper (2008)

Transboundary River Basins: Status and Trends. Summary for Policy Makers / UNEP-DHI and UNEP. (2016)

Vapnek J., Aylward B., Popp C., Bartram J. Law for water management: a guide to concepts and effective approaches (FAO, 2009)

Vinogradov S. International Treaties (2005)

Vinogradov S. Legal Framework for Transboundary Watercourses: Sources, Instruments and Basic Principles (2009)

Vinogradov S. International water law – setting the scene for long term sustainable and mutually beneficial cooperation (2011)

Wouters P., Vinogradov S., Allan A., Jones P., Rieu-Clarke A.: Sharing Transboundary Waters. An Integrated Assessment of Equitable Entitlement: The Legal Assessment Model (UNESCO, IHP -VI, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 74) (2005)

Wouters P. International law – facilitating transboundary water cooperation (GWP, 2013)

Wouters P., Tarlock D.A. The third wave of normativity in global water law. The duty to cooperate in the peaceful management of the world's water resources: an emerging obligation erga omnes? (2013)

Wouters P. 'Dynamic cooperation’ in international law and the shadow of state sovereignty in the context of transboundary waters (2013)

Wouters P. 'Dynamic cooperation’ in international law and the shadow of state sovereignty in the context of transboundary waters (Part 2) (2013)

Zeitoun M. et al Transboundary water interaction III: contest and compliance (2017)

  Global Water Conventions

Bernardini F. The UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. A unique framework for improved management of shared waters (2009)

Frequently Asked Questions on the 1992 Water Convention with the Road map to facilitate accession processes (2020)

Tanzi A. Analyzing the two United Nations Conventions on water: the relationship between the 1992 UNECE Water Convention and the 1997 UN Watercourses Convention (2011)

Tanzi A. International Law and Transboundary Water Resources. A Framework for Shared Optimal Utilization (2011)

Water Convention Programme of Work 2019-2021: Responding to global water challenges in transboundary basins (2019)

  Organizational framework and public participation

Wouters P. International Law of Water Resources: Institutional Mechanisms (2005)

Nazirov A.A. Organization types of transboundary cooperation in the world water practice (2005)

Altyev T. Main functions of regional water organizations. Coordination of national interests and basin constraints. Role of international organizations and donor countries in develop-ment of regional cooperation (2001)

Khamidov M. About principles of transboundary water resources joint use and management in Syrdarya river basin under current political-economic conditions of Central Asian region (2005)

Woodhouse M. Public Participation in International Water Law (2002)

Schaap W., van Steenbergen F. Ideas for Water Awareness Campaigns (published by GWP) (2002)

  Development of the International Water Law in regions


Jones P. Operationalising Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation: the Columbia River (2001)

Baltutis W. J., Moore M.-L. Degrees of change toward polycentric transboundary water governance: exploring the Columbia River and the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (2019)

Newton J.T. Case Study Transboundary Dispute Resolution: Lake Titicaca (2007)

Peters J.J. Social, Political and Institutional Aspects of Water Resources Engineering and Management (2013)

Integrated Water Resources Management in the Titicaca-Desaguadero-Poopo-Salar de Coipasa System (2019)

Promoting Development in Shared River Basins. Case Studies from International Experience (2018)


Appelgren B., Klohn W. Management of transboundary water resources for water security; principles, approaches and State practice

Brilingaite V. China’s Transboundary River Governance: The Case of the Lancang-Mekong River (2017)

Campbell I.C. Managing international river basins: successes and failures of the Mekong River Commission (2011)

Hang Pham Do K., Dinar A. The linkages of energy, water, and land use in Southeast Asia. Challenges and opportunities for the Mekong region (2016)

Hirsch P., Jensen K.M., Boer B., Carrard N., FitzGerald S., Lyster R. National Interests and Transboundary Water Governance in the Mekong (2016)

Jacobs J.W. The Mekong River Commission: transboundary water resources planning and regional security (2002)

Kim K. Sustainable Development in Transboundary Water Resource Management. A Case Study of the Mekong River Basin (2011)

Rahaman M.M. Principles of Transboundary Water Resources Management and Ganges Treaties: An Analysis (2009)

River basin management in Vietnam: sectoral and cross-boundary issues / N.P. Ngoc Ha, D. Trong Tu, N. Van Toan, P. Tuyet Mai, S. Seng, C. Keartha, S. Phyrom (2013)

Transboundary Water Resources Management Issues in the Sesan and Srepok River Basins of Cambodia and Viet Nam (2017)

Wouters P., Chen H. China's 'Soft-path' to transboundary water cooperation examined in the light of two un global water conventions - exploring the 'Chinese way' (2013)

Yun G., Williams S., Wenbin D. Water Management of the Mekong River (2017)


Transboundary Water Resources for People and Nature. Challenges and Opportunities in the Olifants River Basin / A. Mirzabaev, G.W. Njiraini, G. Gebremariam, D. Jourdain, E. Magaia, F. Julio, G. Mosse, J. Mutondo, E. Mungatana (2019)


Vinogradov S. New Water Policy for Europe (2005)

Vinogradov S. Transboundary Water Resources in the Former Soviet Union: Between Conflict and Cooperation (1996)

Water Law In Selected European Countries (Cyprus, Finland, the Netherlands, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia) (FAO, 1983)

Harceag A. Benefits of bilateral cooperation on transboundary waters - Romanian experience (2011)

Water Policy and Law in the Mediterranean. An Evolving Nexus (2011)

Jaspers F. Roleplay International Rivers: Shared Vision and Strategy Development (IHE Delft, 2002)

  Example of the Aral Sea basin

Akmansoy S., McKinney D.C. Aral Sea Water Rights (1997)

Barghouti S. Case Study of the Aral Sea Water and Environmental Management Project (2006)

Dukhovny V.A. Transboundary waters and their joint use — hydrological and political aspects (2005)

Dukhovny V.A. Issues of International Water Law (2005)

Chatterjee. Case Study 4. The Aral Sea Basin (2007)

Kabilov F. Building a Legal Regime for International Watercourses in Central Asia (2010)

Overview of Regional Transboundary Water Agreements, Institutions and Relevant Legal/policy Activities in Central Asia (2011)

Sharipov S.D. Central Asia bilateral and multilateral agreements on water management (2016)

Rysbekov Yu. Legal Framework of Basin Management in Central Asia (2005)

Rysbekov Yu. Moslem Law and Interstate Water Resources Management in Central Asia (2007)

Rysbekov Yu. To the Question Concerning Water Legislation’s Unification: Countries of Central Asia (2007)

Roll G. et al. Aral Sea. Experiences and Lessons Learnt (2006)

Vinogradov S., Langford V.P.E. Managing transboundary water resources in the Aral Sea Basin: in search of a solution (2001)

Ziganshina D. International Water Law in Central Asia: Commitments, Compliance and Beyond (2010)

Ziganshina D. The Role and Relevance of the 1997 UN Convention to the Countries of Central Asia and Afghanistan in the Aral Sea Basin (2011)

Ziganshina D. Promoting regional water cooperation in Central Asia through international law (2014)

Ziganshina D. Transboundary environmental assessment in the Aral Sea basin: the interplay of international and domestic law (2019)

  Aral Sea basin: a view from the outside

Alster J. Legal aspects of water management in the Aral Sea basin: a view from outside (2001)

Alster J. The Aral Sea Basin: Past, Present and Future (a legal view from the outside) (2005)

Lennaerts T., Botbaev K. Madumarov R. Transboundary Water and Related Energy Cooperation for the Aral Sea Basin Region of Central Asia (2005)

Siegfried T., Bernauer T. Measuring International Policy Performance (2006)

Sojamo S. Investigating co-existing conflict and cooperation in the Aral Sea Basin with TWINS-approach (2008)

The Code of Regulations of Muslim Legislation /Shariah/ Concerning Water Use and Land Use

Vinogradov S., Langford V.P.E. Managing tranboundary water resources in the Aral Sea basin: in search of a solution (2001)

de Schutter J. Global IWRM experiences and their relevance for transboundary water management organizations, notably ICWC, in Central Asia (2014)

Rahaman M.M. Principles of Transboundary Water Resources Management and Water-related Agreements in Central Asia: An Analysis (2012)

  Prevention and settlement of disputes

Wouters P. International Law of Water Resources: Compliance and Dispute Avoidance / Settlement (2005)

Wouters P. The Danube River Case (Hungary / Slovakia) (2005)

Paisley R.K. International and national water law: skills for consensus building and decision making. Part 1: Settlement of international water disputes: mechanisms available (2005)

Paisley R.K. International and national water law: skills for consensus building and decision making. Part 2: Negotiations (2005)

Wolf A.T. Conflict and cooperation along international waterways (1998)

Mostert E. Conflict and Cooperation in the Management of International Freshwater Resources: a Global Review (2003)

Wolf A.T., Yoffe S.B., Giordano M. International Waters: Indicators for Identifying Basins at Risk (2003)

Tamas P. Water Resource Scarcity and Conflict: Review of Applicable Indicators and Systems of Reference (2003)

Conflict Prevention and Cooperation in International Water Resources - Course Book (2003)

Conflict Prevention and Cooperation in International Water Resources - Reader (2003)

Conflict Prevention and Cooperation in International Water Resources - Hand Outs (2003)

Cosgrove W.J. Water Security and Peace (2003)

Salman M.A.S. International Water Disputes: A New Breed of Claims, Claimants, and Settlement Institutions (2006)

The impact of climate change on the dynamics of conflicts in the transboundary river basins of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan / V.Ni, E.Efimova, A.Rickelton et al (2022)

  Water conflicts at the interstate level and tools for resolving those

Case Concerning the Auditing of Accounts Between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the French Republic Pursuant to the Additional Protocol of 25 September 1991 to the Convention on the Protection of the Rhine Against Pollution by Chlorides of 3 December 1976. Arbitral Award of 12 March 2004

Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda). Judgment of 19 December 2005

ICSID Case. In the Proceeding Between Azurix Corp. (Claimant) and the Argentine Republic (Respondent) (2006)

ICSID Case. Bayview Irrigation District et al. (Claimants) versus United Mexican States (Respondent) (2007)

ICSID Case. Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Ltd., Claimant v. United Republic of Tanzania, Respondent (2008)

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004 (2004)

Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua). Judgment of 13 July 2009

Centre for Minority Rights Development (Kenya) and Minority Rights Group International on behalf of Endorois Welfare Council v Kenya (2003)

Case Concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia). Judgments of 25 September 1997

Case Relating to the Territorial, Jurisdiction of the International Commission of the River Oder (1929)

Case Concerning Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana - Namibia). Judgment of 13 December 1999

Lake Lanoux Arbitration (France v. Spain) (1957)

Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay). Judgment of 20 April 2010

Case of the Xakmok Kasek Indigenous Community v. Paraguay. Judgment of 24 August 2010

ICSID Case. Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, S.A., and Vivendi Universal S.A. (Claimants) v. the Argentine Republic (Respondent) (2007)

ICSID Case. In the proceedings between Aguas Argentinas, S.A., Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, S.A. and Vivendi Universal, S.A. (Claimants) and the Argentine Republic (Respondent) (2005)

ICSID Case. In the proceedings between Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A., and InterAguas Servicios Integrales del Agua S.A. (Claimants) and The Argentine Republic (Respondent) (2006)

Case of the Sawhoyamaxa Indigenous Community v. Paraguay. Judgment of 29 March 2006

Case of the Saramaka People v. Suriname. Judgment of 12 August 2008

Case of the Yakye Axa Indigenous Community v. Paraguay. Judgment of 17 June 2005

Water Sharing Conflicts and the Threat to International Peace. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats of the Committee on Foreign Affairs House of Representatives (2014)

Bernauer T., Siegfried T. Climate change and international water conflict in Central Asia (2015)

Scheffran J., Brzoska M., Kominek J., Link M., Schilling J. Climate change and violent conflict (2012)

Baranyaia G., Bartusb G. Anatomy of a deadlock: a systemic analysis of why the Gabcikovo–Nagymaros dam dispute is still unresolved (2016)

Molnar K., Cuppari R., Schmeier S., Demuth S. Preventing Conflicts, Fostering Cooperation – The many Roles of Water Diplomacy (2017)

  Right to Water

Ziganshina D. Rethinking the Concept of the Human Right to Water (2008)

Human Rights Fact Sheets. No. 35. The Right to Water (2010)

Climate Change and the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation. Position Paper (2010)

de Albuquerque C., Roaf V. Good practices in the realisation of the rights to water and sanitation (2012)

Frequently Asked Questions on the rights to water and sanitation (2012)

Legal Obligations with Tangible Benefits on the rights to water and sanitation (2012)

The Right to Water (2003)